Role of the Motor Encoder

Role of the Motor Encoder

Basic Knowledge of the Encoder

People who are interested in studying encoders.

We hope that they will be able to understand the meaning of an encoder.


  • An encoder is a sensor that detects linear displacement or rotation angle.
  • Devices that require high speed and high accuracy will use encoders.
  • Feedback control is a method to control the motor’s rotation using an encoder. It detects the rotation speed and angle of the motor with an encoder.

 How do you measure rotation speed and the amount of rotation?

We have many precision instruments.

Machines, robots and home appliances… These devices can be configured in the following manner:

  • Sensors to detect device movement and status
  • Controllers that base their decisions and processes on signals from sensors
  • Based on the controller’s information, actuators move devices.

Sensors are vital for controlling and moving various objects.

It is crucial to be able to detect movement and conditions in order to control these devices quickly and accurately.
Encoders, which are electronic components, can be used to detect rotation angle, movement distance and rotation speed. What are encoders?

What is an encoder?

Motor Encoders can encode linear displacement and rotation angles. An encoder that detects movement is called a rotation encoder and one that detects linear displacement is called a line encoder.

Because the rotary type is most commonly used, people often refer to an encoder when they say “encoder”. This series will primarily focus on the Rotary Encoder.

Where are encoders found?

Encoders are used in devices that need to work quickly and with high accuracy, as mentioned earlier. It is a device powered by a motor. Encoders are used extensively in industrial robots such as welding robots, assembly robots and machining centers.

But most people have not seen the latest factory in which industrial robots are used every day. Let’s take a look at some examples of where the encoder actually is used.

Factory automation (Smart factory).

In factories that make automobiles and electrical appliances, there are many production facilities.

Machine tools made from metal can be controlled by a computer. A single machine can cut flat surfaces, drill holes and make grooves. These machine tools are known as machining centers.

The parts are then sent to an assembly plant where they are assembled automatically by industrial robots, such as arm robots or dedicated assembly machines.

Modern factories use computers and networks to automate all processes, including design, part processing and storage, management, transport and assembly. Industry 4.0 is the name of this concept, and smart factories are those factories that use computers and networks to connect with other factories.

Industrial robots

Industrial robots can be used to free people from hazardous and difficult work (so-called 3Ds work), improve factory productivity and maintain product quality. An articulated robot, which has multiple joints that are equivalent to human elbows, wrists, shoulders and elbows is the most popular industrial robot. It functions as an arm, with pivot, rotation, and slide movements. The actuator converts the signal input from the controller into motion, and the robot moves precisely.

Industrial robot diagram

The manipulator is the portion that corresponds to the “arm” of the human arm from the wrist to the shoulder, while the end effector is the portion that corresponds to the “hand”, which is the human wrist to the finger. Industrial robots can be used to do more than just grab, such as painting or welding. You can see articulated robots displayed by different companies at a robot and machine tool exhibition.


Robot actuators are made from motors, which are small and easy to manufacture. People use actuators that have a higher rotational force (or torque) to control their movements. This is done by attaching a reduction gear, which works in the same way as a bicycle transmission to the motor’s output shaft and slows down its rotational speed.

An electric slider can also be used to generate a lot of force by changing the direction of the movement with a screw.


Motors come in many forms, which can be confusing. In this article, we will be focusing on motors that use encoders.

A servomotor is one example. The motor used in servomechanism is the servomotor. The servomechanism controls the travel distance and rotation angle of one movement. A servomotor is composed of an encoder, a brushless AC or DC motor, and a drive (also known as a driver).

An encoder is used to detect the rotation speed of an AC or brushless DC motor in order to maintain a constant speed. If the speed detected is lower than the preset speed, the servo amplifier will control the motor to spin faster or slower.

An encoder detects the motor’s rotation angle to control it accurately. The motor’s rotation angle is controlled by the servo amplifier. It checks whether the motor has reached the desired rotation angle.

This control method uses an encoder to determine the motor’s rotation speed and angle. It is known as feedback control (closed-loop).

Stepper motor

A stepper motor is another. A stepper motor is one that rotates at a specific angle when only one pulse signal is applied to it. You can use the stepper motor without feedback (open-loop) because the rotation angle and speed of the motor are determined by how many pulse signals were applied to it and the interval between them.

Because it doesn’t use an encoder, this method simplifies the system. The downside to the stepper motor is its low efficiency. It flows the maximum current to avoid step-out.

The encoder can be used to verify that the motor is turning as directed and to return the result. This reduces the power consumption and makes it unnecessary to maintain the maximum current.

Stepper motor usage

An encoder can also be used to check the load status. This will allow the actuator to operate at maximum speed within the range that the motor doesn’t step out. This will improve productivity. This motor is sometimes called the stepper-servo motor.


  • An encoder is a sensor that detects linear displacement or rotation angle.
  • Devices that require high speed and high accuracy will use encoders.
  • Feedback control is a method to control the motor’s rotation using an encoder. It detects the rotation speed and angle of the motor with an encoder.

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